How Do Solar Panel Work?

What is SONCAP

What is SONCAP

To assure Nigerian consumers of the quality and safety of imported goods, the Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SON) has implemented guidelines called the Standards Organisation of Nigeria Conformity Assessment Programme (SONCAP).
SONCAP verifies the conformity of all products except those that are on the Excluded Product List and enforces their standards. Compliance to SONCAP requirements is applicable in addition to any existing import processes.

The requirements for SONCAP include:

Every consignment of imported goods must be accompanied by a SONCAP Certificate. Intertek is an approved Certification/Inspection Body (CIB) which offers this service to exporters.

The SONCAP Certificate is required to ensure smooth Customs clearance of shipments in Nigeria.

The SONCAP Certificate confirms that the products comply with the relevant Nigerian technical regulations and approved international/regional/national standards. The authorities in Nigeria may take random samples from imported consignments to verify compliance.

From the 5th September 2009, the SONCAP will be extended to cover all products except those regulated by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration  and Control (NAFDAC). In addition to the products covered under NAFDAC, products that are also exempt from the SONCAP include:

Food Products
Medical Products (other than equipment and machines)
Chemicals used a Raw Materials
Military Ware and Equipment
Aviation Related Products
Industrial Machinery for Manufacturing
Used Products (other than Automobiles)
CKD Bicycles, Motorcycles, Automobiles for Bonafide Manufacturers/assemblers

March 18, 2011 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a Comment

How Do Solar Panel Work?

How Do Solar Panels Work?
The simplified answer:

Learn how solar panels convert sunlight into electricity

Solar panels collect solar radiation from the sun and actively convert that energy to electricity. Solar panels are comprised of several individual solar cells. These solar cells function similarly to large semiconductors and utilize a large-area p-n junction diode. When the solar cells are exposed to sunlight, the p-n junction diodes convert the energy from sunlight into usable electrical energy. The energy generated from photons striking the surface of the solar panel allows electrons to be knocked out of their orbits and released, and electric fields in the solar cells pull these free electrons in a directional current, from which metal contacts in the solar cell can generate electricity. The more solar cells in a solar panel and the higher the quality of the solar cells, the more total electrical output the solar panel can produce. The conversion of sunlight to usable electrical energy has been dubbed the Photovoltaic Effect.

The photovoltaic effect arises from the properties of the p-n junction diode, as such there are no moving parts in a solar panel.

Solar Insolation and Solar Panel Efficiency

Solar Insolation is a measure of how much solar radiation a given solar panel or surface recieves. The greater the insolation, the more solar energy can be converted to electricity by the solar panel. Click to learn more about solar insolation.

Other factors that affect the output of solar panels are weather conditions, shade caused by obstructions to direct sunlight, and the angle and position at which the solar panel is installed. Solar panels function the best when placed in direct sunlight, away from obstructions that might cast shade, and in areas with high regional solar insolation ratings.

Solar panel efficiency can be optimized by using dynamic mounts that follow the position of the sun in the sky and rotate the solar panel to get the maximum amount of direct exposure during the day as possible.

What is a solar cell?

A solar cell is a device people can make that takes the energy of sunlight and converts it into electricity.

How does a solar cell turn sunlight into electricity?

In a crystal, the bonds [between silicon atoms] are made of electrons that are shared between all of the atoms of the crystal. The light gets absorbed, and one of the electrons that’s in one of the bonds gets excited up to a higher energy level and can move around more freely than when it was bound. That electron can then move around the crystal freely, and we can get a current.

March 17, 2011 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a Comment