How Do Solar Panel Work?

Solar Cell Introduce

A large number of products currently on the market of single crystal and polycrystalline silicon solar cell (what is solar cell?)efficiency of about 15% of the average up and down, that is, such a solar cell can only convert the incident solar energy 15% of available power, and the remaining 85% of waste into useless heat. Strictly speaking, the present solar cells, but also some type of “waste of energy.” Of course, theoretically, as long as the solar cells can effectively inhibit the carrier and phonon energy exchange, in other words, the effective suppression of carrier band or band between the energy release, can effectively prevent unwanted solar cells heat generation, greatly improving the efficiency of solar cells, even to the ultra-efficient operation. The idea of such a simple theory, in practice the technology, but can use different methods to implement this principle. Ultra-high efficiency solar cells (third-generation solar cell) technology development, in addition to the use of innovative design elements, to try to break their physical limitations may also be due to the introduction of new materials, and to achieve a substantial increase in conversion efficiency.

Thin film solar cells, including amorphous silicon solar cells, CdTe and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) cells. Although the number of producing multi-film solar cells with conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells are still unable to compete, but its low manufacturing costs are still to have a place in the market and future market share will continue to grow.

Photosensitive dye solar cells (Dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC) is a recently developed a new type of solar cells. DSsC also known as the Grätzel cell, because in 1991, published by Grätzel et al and the general structure of different photovoltaic cells, the substrate is usually glass, it can be transparent and flexible polymer foil (polymer foil ), glass with a layer of transparent conductive oxide (transparent conducting oxide, TCO) is often used FTO (SnO2: F), and then having about 10 micron thick layer of porous nano-sized TiO2 particles (about 10 ~ 20 nm) the formation of a nano-porous film. And then coated with a layer of dye attached to the TiO2 particles. Dyes are usually used ruthenium polypyridyl complex. In addition to the upper electrode is the use of glass and TCO, but also coated with a layer of platinum catalyst for the reaction when the electrolyte, the second floor between the electrodes, the injection fill containing iodide / triiodide electrolyte. Although the highest conversion efficiency of DSC cells about 12% (theoretical maximum 29%), but the manufacturing process is simple, it is generally considered to significantly reduce production costs, while reducing the tariff per unit of electricity.

Tandem-type battery
Tandem-type cells (Tandem Cell) is a novel use of the original structure of the battery, through the energy gap by the design of different layers to achieve the absorption efficiency of solar cells optimized structure design. At present we know from theoretical calculations, if more layers in the structure into the number of batteries, the battery efficiency will be increased gradually, even up to 50% conversion efficiency.
Edit this paragraph and transparent 5″ monocrystalline Silicon 5 inch 125 Series Solar Cell

Organizational networks, according to recent reports, American physicist, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have developed a light can be absorbed and transformed into electrical energy of its large area of new transparent film . The film semiconductor and fullerene as raw materials, with a micro-cellular structure. Research published in the latest issue of “Materials Chemistry” magazine, the paper said the technology can be used to develop transparent solar panels can even use this material to generate electricity in the windows. The material from the semiconductor doped polymer composition of carbon fullerenes. Under strictly controlled conditions, the material can be self-assembled by a micron-scale hexagonal structure expands to the size of a few millimeters of the surface covered with micro-honeycomb structure.

Responsible for the research Brookhaven National Laboratory, Center for Multifunctional Nanomaterials physical chemist Mircea Cartwright said that although the production of such honeycomb film with the traditional use of polymer materials (such as polystyrene) similar process, but the semiconductor and fullerene as raw materials, and allow it to absorb the light generated charge is the first time. According to reports, the reason why the material can be transparent in appearance only because the polymer chains are closely linked with the edges of hexagons, while the remaining part of the structure is relatively simple to connect the points as the center outward thinner. This structure has a connection function, also has a strong ability to absorb light, but also conducive to conduction current, while other parts of the relatively thin and more transparent, since the main role of light.

Researchers through a very unique way to weave this honeycomb films: First, fullerene containing polymers and added to the solution, including micro-scale thin layer of water droplets. These water droplets in the polymer after exposure to self-assemble into large arrays will, and when the solvent completely evaporated, it will form a large area of hexagonal honeycomb plane. In addition, the researchers found that the formation of the polymer and solvent evaporation rate is closely related to the corresponding materials will determine the final charge transfer rate. Slower solvent evaporation, the more compact polymer structure, charge transfer rate is the sooner.

“This is a significant low-cost and effective preparation method has potential applications from the laboratory to large-scale commercial production being.” Cartwright said.

By scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent probe confocal scanning microscope, the researchers confirmed that the new material uniformity of cellular structure and its different parts (edge, center, node) of the optical properties and charge generation conditions were tested.

Cartwright said: “Our work on the cellular structure so that people have a deeper understanding of the optical characteristics. The next step we plan to apply this material transparent and flexible 6″ Polycrystalline Silicon 6 inch 156 Series Solar Cell and curled the manufacture of other devices which, in order to promote this kinds of cellular membrane into the practical stage as soon as possible. “

June 3, 2011 - Posted by | Uncategorized

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